Sustainable development was defined in 1987 by the then-PM of Norway Ms Gro Harlem Brundtland as "the kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."

The concept of sustainable development is based on three pillars:

  • Economic growth: sustainable development must promote economic growth through sustainable methods of consumption and production.
  • Social equality: sustainable development must support social justice and allow everyone to play an active part in shaping social issues (healthcare, housing, education, employment, etc.).
  • Environmental protection: sustainable development must safeguard and protect the environment and natural resources in the long term while preserving key aspects of ecological balance. It should thus promote renewable energy over fossil fuels like oil, gas and coal.

France has enacted its own energy transition measures to combat climate change and take tangible steps to support sustainable development.